Baghdad battery carbon dating
The find was made at Khujut Rabu'a, not far to the southeast of Bagdad.
It consisted of a vase made of clay, about 14 centimeters high and with its largest diameter 8 centimeters.
"An assembly of this kind cannot very well have any other purpose than that of generating a weak electric current. The value of this discovery increases when one knows that four similar clay vases were found near Tel'Omar or Seleukia - three of them containing copper cylinders similar to the one found at Khujut Rabu'a.
If one remembers that it was found among undisturbed relics of the Parthian Kingdom - which existed from 250 B. The Seleukia finds were, apparently, less well preserved - there are no iron rods in evidence any more. "While the probable date of the invention is entirely open to conjecture, it seems likely that it was made in or near Bagdad, since all known finds were made in the vicinity of this city.
The Medzamor craftsmen wore mouth-filters and gloves while they labored and fashioned their wares of copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, tin, manganese and fourteen kinds of bronze. "The remarkable fact was announced some years ago that certain gastropod mollusca secrete free sulfuric acid; and this has since then been not infrequently observed in the case of the gigantic Dolium galea, which discharges from its proboscis a drop of liquid or saliva that produces a very sensible effervescence on chalk or marble.
The smelters also produced an assortment of metallic paints, ceramics and glass." In the course of the excavation of the Agora in Athens, a roll of sheet zinc, 98% pure, was supposedly found in a sealed deposit dating from the 3rd or 2nd century B. Fragments of a zinc coffin was reported to have fairly recently been discovered in Israel, which, judging by an artifact found nearby, dates back to 50 B. This secretion from different mollusca, carefully analyzed, showed a considerable percentage of free sulphuric acid, some of combined sulphuric acid, combined chlorohydric acid, with potassa, soda, magnesia, and other substances; the glands secreting the liquids constituting from 7 to 9 per cent of the total weight of the animal.
C., in a paper read before the Society for the Study of Alchemy and Early Chemistry, Doctor Reginald Campbell Thompson, the author of A Dictionary of Assyrian Chemistry and Geology, informs us that:"The sources from which our knowledge of Assyrian Chemistry is obtained are a very small part of the collections of cuneiform tablets in our museums, which may perhaps be reckoned at a quarter of a million roughly in number, and of this chemistry, almost all our knowledge comes from tablets of the Seventh Century B. But that the ancient Sumerians had a very practical knowledge of chemical methods even before the invention of writing, let us say, very early in the Fourth Millennium B.
The center of the plug was formed by a solid piece of iron - now 75 millimeters long and originally a centimeter or so in diameter.
The upper part of the iron rod shows that it was at first round, and while the lower end has partly corroded away so that the rod is pointed now at the lower end, it might be safely assumed that in the beginning it was of uniform thickness. - one naturally feels very reluctant to accept such an explanation, but there is really no alternative.
They did a lot of fine work in steel, gold, and silver.
You may wonder what this had to do with electric batteries.With this acid secretion there is, at least in some species, an evolution of pure carbonic gas, one gland, weighing approximately about 700 grains, yielding 206 cubic centimeters.